Development Implications

Development Implications Childhood depression Symptoms < Age 3: Feeding problems, tantrums, lack of playfulness and emotional expressiveness Ages 3 to 5: Accident proneness, phobias, excessive self-reproach Ages 6 to 8: Physical complaints, aggressive behavior, clinging behavior Ages 9 to 12: Morbid thoughts and excessive worrying Precipitated by a loss Focus of therapy: Alleviate symptoms and […]

Predisposing factors to depression

Predisposing factors to depression Biological theories Genetics Hereditary factor may be involved Biochemical influences Deficiency of norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine has been implicated. Excessive cholinergic transmission may also be a factor. Neuroendocrine disturbances Possible failure within the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis Possible diminished release of thyroid-stimulating hormone Physiological influences Medication side effects Neurological disorders Electrolyte disturbances Hormonal […]

Depressive Disorders

Depressive Disorders Depression is the oldest and one of the most frequently diagnosed psychiatric illnesses. Transient symptoms are normal, healthy responses to everyday disappointments in life. Pathological depression occurs when adaptation is ineffective. Depression is an alteration in mood/affect that is expressed by feelings of sadness, despair, and pessimism. Epidemiology 6.7% of persons aged 18 […]

Treatment Modalities: Psychopharmacology

Treatment Modalities Individual psychotherapy Cognitive therapy Behavior therapy Systematic desensitization Implosion therapy Other non-pharmacologic treatments for anxiety Treatment Modalities: Psychopharmacology Classifications of Meds used Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)—first line Selective serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs)—first line Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs)—second or third line Benzodiazepines β-Blockers Medication for specific disorders Panic and G A D Anxiolytics Antidepressants […]

Client/Family Education – Nature of the Illness

Client/Family Education Nature of the Illness What is anxiety? To what might it be related? What is O C D? What is body dysmorphic disorder? What is trichotillomania? Symptoms of anxiety, O C D, and related disorders Management of the Illness Medication management Possible adverse effect Length of time to take effect What to expect […]

Planning/Implementation – Panic Anxiety

Planning/Implementation Panic Anxiety: Real or perceived threat to biological integrity or self-concept and evident any or all of the physical symptoms identified by the DSM-5 Maintain calm, nonthreatening approach. Keep the immediate surroundings low in stimuli. Teach the client signs of escalating anxiety. Fear: Causing embarrassment to self in front of others, being in a […]

Diagnosis/Outcome identification

Diagnosis/Outcome identification Nursing diagnoses commonly associated with anxiety, O C D, and related disorders Panic anxiety (panic disorder and G A D) Powerlessness (panic disorder and G A D) Fear (phobias) Social isolation (agoraphobia) Ineffective role performance (O C D) Ineffective coping (O C D) Disturbed body image (body dysmorphic disorder) Ineffective impulse control (hair-pulling […]

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (O C D)

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (O C D) Assessment data Recurrent obsessions or compulsions that are severe enough to be time-consuming or to cause marked distress or significant impairment Obsessions Recurrent thoughts, impulses, or images experienced as intrusive and stressful, and unable to be expunged by logic or reasoning Compulsions Repetitive ritualistic behavior or thoughts, the purpose of […]

Types of phobia

Types of phobia   Classifications Fear Classifications Fear Acrophobia Height Mysophobia Dirt, germs, contamination Ailurophobia Cats Numerophobia Numbers Algophobia Pain Nyctophobia Darkness Anthophobia Flowers Ochophobia Riding in a car Anthropophobia People Ophidiophobia Snakes Aquaphobia Water Pyrophobia Fire Arachnophobia Spiders Scoleciphobia Worms Astraphobia Lightning Siderodromophobia Railroads or train travel Belonephobia Needles Taphophobia Being buried alive Brontophobia […]


Phobias Agoraphobia Fear of being vulnerable in places or situations from which escape might be difficult or in which help might not be available in the event of panic-like symptoms or other incapacitating symptoms. Traveling in public transportation Being in open spaces Being in shops, theaters, or cinemas Standing in line or being in a […]