- Fear of being vulnerable in places or situations from which escape might be difficult or in which help might not be available in the event of panic-like symptoms or other incapacitating symptoms.
- Traveling in public transportation
- Being in open spaces
- Being in shops, theaters, or cinemas
- Standing in line or being in a crowd
- Being outside of the home alone in other situations
Social anxiety disorder (social phobia)
- Excessive fear of situations in which the affected person might do something embarrassing or be evaluated negatively by others
- Exposure to the phobic situation usually results in feelings of panic anxiety with sweating, tachycardia, and dyspnea.
- It appears to be more common in women than in men.
- Fear of specific objects or situations that could conceivably cause harm, but the person’s reaction to them is excessive, unreasonable, and inappropriate
- Exposure to the phobic object produces overwhelming symptoms of panic, including palpitations, sweating, dizziness, and difficulty breathing
- After a period of time, the person recognizes that their fear is excessive or unreasonable but is powerless to change, even though they occasionally endure the phobic stimulus when experiencing intense anxiety.
- Natural environment type
- Blood-injection-injury type
- Situational type
- Other type
Predisposing factors to phobias
- Unconscious fears may be expressed in a symbolic manner as phobia.
- Fears are conditioned responses and thus are learned by imposing reinforcements for certain behaviors.
- Anxiety is the product of faulty cognitions or anxiety-inducing self-instructions.
- Negative self-statements
- Irrational beliefs
- The individual begins to seek out avoidance behaviors to prevent the anxiety reaction, and phobias results.
- Types of phobia
Dirt, germs, contamination
Riding in a car
Railroads or train travel
Being buried alive
The number 13