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Development Implications

Development Implications

  • Childhood depression
    • Symptoms
      • < Age 3: Feeding problems, tantrums, lack of playfulness and emotional expressiveness
      • Ages 3 to 5: Accident proneness, phobias, excessive self-reproach
      • Ages 6 to 8: Physical complaints, aggressive behavior, clinging behavior
      • Ages 9 to 12: Morbid thoughts and excessive worrying
    • Precipitated by a loss
    • Focus of therapy: Alleviate symptoms and strengthen coping skills
    • Parental and family therapy
  • Adolescence
    • Symptoms include
      • Anger, aggressiveness
      • Running away
      • Delinquency
      • Social withdrawal
      • Sexual acting out
      • Substance abuse
      • Restlessness, apathy
    • Best clue that differentiates depression from normal stormy adolescent behavior
      • A visible manifestation of behavioral change that lasts for several weeks.
    • Most common precipitant to adolescent suicide
      • Perception of abandonment by parents or close peer relationship
    • Treatment with
      • Supportive psychosocial intervention
      • Antidepressant medication
  • Senescence
    • Bereavement overload
    • High percentage of suicides among elderly
    • Symptoms of depression often confused with symptoms of neurocognitive disorder
    • Treatment
      • Antidepressant medication
      • Electroconvulsive therapy
      • Psychotherapies
  • Postpartum depression
    • May last for a few weeks to several months
    • Associated with hormonal changes, tryptophan metabolism, or cell alterations
    • Treatments
      • Antidepressants and psychosocial therapies
    • Symptoms include
      • Fatigue/Irritability
      • Loss of appetite
      • Sleep disturbances
      • Loss of libido
      • Concern about inability to care for infant
  • Transient depression
    • Symptoms at this level of the continuum are not necessarily dysfunctional.
      • Affective: The “blues”
      • Behavioral: Some crying
      • Cognitive: Some difficulty getting mind off of one’s disappointment
      • Physiological: Feeling tired and listless