Predisposing factors to depression

Predisposing factors to depression

  • Biological theories
    • Genetics
      • Hereditary factor may be involved
  • Biochemical influences
    • Deficiency of norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine has been implicated.
    • Excessive cholinergic transmission may also be a factor.
  • Neuroendocrine disturbances
    • Possible failure within the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis
    • Possible diminished release of thyroid-stimulating hormone
  • Physiological influences
    • Medication side effects
    • Neurological disorders
    • Electrolyte disturbances
    • Hormonal disorders
    • Nutritional deficiencies
    • Other physiological conditions
    • The role of inflammation
  • Psychoanalytical theory
    • A loss is internalized and becomes directed against the ego.
  • Learning theory
    • The individual who experiences numerous failures learns to give up trying.
  • Object loss theory
    • Experiences loss of significant other during first 6 months of life
    • Feelings of helplessness and despair
    • Early loss or trauma may predispose client to lifelong periods of depression.
  • Cognitive theory
    • Views primary disturbance in depression as cognitive rather than affective.
    • Three cognitive distortions that serve as the basis for depression.
      • Negative expectations of the environment
      • Negative expectations of the self
      • Negative expectations of the future


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