Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) Alcohol use during pregnancy can result in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (F A S D’s). Fetal alcohol syndrome (F A S): Problems with learning, memory, attention span, communication, vision, and hearing Alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder Alcohol-related birth defects Characteristics of F A S Learning difficulties Abnormal facial features Speech and language delays […]

Alcohol Use Disorder: Patterns of use

Alcohol Use Disorder: Patterns of use Phase I. Pre-alcoholic phase: Characterized by use of alcohol to relieve everyday stress and tensions of life Phase II. Early alcoholic phase: Begins with blackouts—brief periods of amnesia that occur during or immediately following a period of drinking; alcohol is now required by the person. Phase III. The crucial […]

Classes of Psychoactive substances

Classes of Psychoactive substances Alcohol Caffeine Cannabis Hallucinogens Inhalants Opioids Sedatives/hypnotics Stimulants Tobacco Predisposing Factors Biological factors Genetics: Apparent hereditary factor, particularly with alcoholism Biochemical: Alcohol may produce morphine-like substances in the brain that are responsible for alcohol addiction Psychological factors Developmental influences Punitive superego Fixation in the oral stage of psychosexual development Personality factors: […]

Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders

Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders Use of the substance interferes with the ability to fulfill role obligations Attempts to cut down or control use fail Intense craving for the substance Excessive amount of time spent trying to procure the substance or recover from its use Use of the substance causes the person difficulty with interpersonal relationships […]

Client/Family Education : Bipolar

Client/Family Education Lithium Take the medication regularly. Do not skimp on dietary sodium. Drink six to eight glasses of water each day. Notify physician if vomiting or diarrhea occur. Have serum lithium level checked every 1 to 2 months, or as advised by physician. Notify physician if any of the following symptoms occur: Persistent nausea […]

Treatment Modalities for Bipolar Disorder

Treatment Modalities for Bipolar Disorder Individual psychotherapy Group therapy Family therapy Cognitive therapy The Recovery Model Learning how to live a safe, dignified, full, and self-determined life in the face of the enduring disability which may, at times, be associated with serious mental illness. In bipolar disorder, recovery is a continuous process. Client identifies goals. […]

Criteria for measuring Outcomes: The Patient

Criteria for measuring Outcomes: The Patient Exhibits no evidence of physical injury Has not harmed self or others Is no longer exhibiting signs of physical agitation Eats a well-balanced diet with snacks to prevent weight loss and maintain nutritional status Verbalizes an accurate interpretation of the environment Verbalizes that hallucinatory activity has ceased and demonstrates […]

Nursing Diagnosis

Nursing Diagnosis Risk for injury related to Extreme hyperactivity, increased agitation, and lack of control over purposeless and potentially injurious movements Risk for violence: self-directed or other-directed related to Manic excitement Delusional thinking Hallucinations Impulsivity Imbalanced nutrition less than body requirements related to Refusal or inability to sit still long enough to eat, evidenced by […]

Nursing Process Assessment

Nursing Process Assessment Symptoms may be categorized by degree of severity. Stage 1. Hypomania: Symptoms not sufficiently severe to cause marked impairment in social or occupational functioning or to require hospitalization Cheerful mood Rapid flow of ideas; heightened perception Increased motor activity Stage 2. Acute mania: Marked impairment in functioning; usually requires hospitalization Elation and […]

Developmental implications: Childhood and Adolescence

Developmental implications: Childhood and Adolescence Lifetime prevalence of pediatric and adolescent bipolar disorders is estimated at about 1%. Diagnosis is difficult. Treatment strategies Psychopharmacology Lithium Divalproex Carbamazepine Atypical antipsychotics Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (A D H D) is the most common comorbid condition. A D H D agents may exacerbate mania and should be administered only […]