Classes of Psychoactive substances

Classes of Psychoactive substances

  1. Alcohol
  2. Caffeine
  3. Cannabis
  4. Hallucinogens
  5. Inhalants
  6. Opioids
  7. Sedatives/hypnotics
  8. Stimulants
  9. Tobacco

Predisposing Factors

  • Biological factors
    • Genetics: Apparent hereditary factor, particularly with alcoholism
    • Biochemical: Alcohol may produce morphine-like substances in the brain that are responsible for alcohol addiction
  • Psychological factors
    • Developmental influences
    • Punitive superego
    • Fixation in the oral stage of psychosexual development
    • Personality factors: Certain personality traits are thought to increase a tendency toward addictive behavior.
    • Cognitive factors: Irrational thinking patterns have long been identified as a problem that is central in addictions.
  • Sociocultural factors
    • Social learning: Children and adolescents are more likely to use substances with parents who provide a model for substance use.
    • Use of substances may also be promoted within a peer group.
    • Conditioning: Pleasurable effects from substance use act as a positive reinforcement for continued use of the substance.
    • Cultural and ethnic influences: Some cultures are more prone to substance abuse than are others.


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