Urinary Tract Infection : Nursing Management

Nursing Management Nursing Assessment Subjective Data Important Health Information Past health history: Previous urinary tract infection. Urinary calculi, reflux, strictures, or retention. Neurogenic bladder, pregnancy, benign prostatic hyperplasia, bladder cancer, sexually transmitted infection. Medications: Antibiotics, anticholinergics, antispasmodics Surgery or other treatments: Recent urologic instrumentation (catheterization, cystoscopy) Functional Health Patterns Health perception–health management: Urinary hygiene practices. […]

Urinary Tract Infection : Diagnostic Studies

Diagnostic Studies History and physical examination Dipstick urinalysis Identify presence of nitrites, WBCs, and leukocyte esterase Urine culture Urine for culture and sensitivity (if indicated) Clean-catch sample preferred Specimen by catheterization or suprapubic needle aspiration more accurate Determine bacteria susceptibility to antibiotics Imaging studies Ultrasound CT scan (CT urogram) Drug Therapy Antibiotics Selected on empiric […]

Urinary Tract Infection : Clinical Manifestations

Clinical Manifestations Painful urination Abdominal or back pain Fever Sepsis Decreased kidney function in some cases of pyelonephritis Symptoms related Storage: Urinary frequency Abnormally frequent (more often than  every 2 hours) Urgency Sudden, strong desire to void immediately Incontinence Loss or leakage or urine Bladder storage Nocturia Waking up two or more times at night […]

Urinary Tract Infection : Etiology and Pathophysiology

Urinary Tract Infection   Etiology and Pathophysiology Urinary tract above urethra normally sterile Defense mechanisms exist to maintain sterility/prevent UTIs Complete emptying of bladder Ureterovesical junction competence Ureteral peristaltic activity Defense mechanisms Acidic pH (less than 6.0) High urea concentration Abundant glycoproteins Predisposing factors to UTI: Factors increasing urinary stasis Intrinsic obstruction (stone, tumor of […]

Urinary Tract Infection

Urinary Tract Infection Most common bacterial infection in women May be caused by a variety of disorders Bacterial infection most common Bladder and its contents are free of bacteria in majority of healthy people Minority of healthy individuals have some bacteria colonizing in bladder Called asymptomatic bacteriuria and does not justify treatment Escherichia coli  (E. […]

Chronic Pancreatitis

Chronic Pancreatitis Continuous, prolonged inflammatory, and fibrosing process of the pancreas Etiology Alcohol, gallstones, tumor, pseudocysts, trauma, systemic disease Acute pancreatitis Idiopathic Classifications Two major types Chronic obstructive pancreatitis Inflammation of sphincter of Oddi Cancer of ampulla of Vater, duodenum, or pancreas Chronic non-obstructive pancreatitis Inflammation and sclerosis in head of pancreas and around duct […]

Pancreatitis : Nursing Implementation

Nursing Implementation Health Promotion Assessment of patient for predisposing and etiologic factors Encouragement of early treatment of these factors Early diagnosis/treatment of biliary tract disease Elimination of alcohol intake Acute Care Monitoring vital signs Monitor response to IV fluids Closely monitor fluid and electrolyte balance Assess respiratory function Monitor fluid and electrolyte balance Chloride, sodium, […]

Nursing Management: Acute Pancreatitis

Nursing Management: Acute Pancreatitis Nursing Assessment Subjective Data Important Health Information Past health history: Biliary tract disease, alcohol use, abdominal trauma, duodenal ulcers, infection, metabolic disorders Medications: Thiazides Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs Surgery or other treatments: Surgical procedures on the pancreas, stomach, duodenum, or biliary tract. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) Functional Health Patterns Health perception–health management: […]