Urinary Tract Infection : Clinical Manifestations

Clinical Manifestations

  • Painful urination
  • Abdominal or back pain
  • Fever
  • Sepsis
  • Decreased kidney function in some cases of pyelonephritis
  • Symptoms related Storage:
    • Urinary frequency
      • Abnormally frequent (more often than  every 2 hours)
    • Urgency
      • Sudden, strong desire to void immediately
    • Incontinence
      • Loss or leakage or urine
    • Bladder storage
      • Nocturia
        • Waking up two or more times at night to void
        • May be diurnal or nocturnal depending on sleep schedule
      • Nocturnal enuresis
        • Loss of urine during sleep
    • Bladder emptying
      • Weak stream
      • Hesitancy
        • Difficulty starting the urine stream
        • Delay between initiation of urination (because of urethral sphincter relaxation) and beginning of low of urine
        • Diminished urinary stream
      • Intermittency
        • Interruption of urinary stream during voiding
      • Post-void dribbling
        • Urine loss after completion of voiding
      • Urinary retention
        • Inability to empty urine from bladder
        • Caused by atonic bladder or obstruction of urethra
        • Can be acute or chronic
      • Dysuria
        • Painful or difficulty voiding
    • Flank pain, chills, and fever indicate infection of upper tract
      • Pyelonephritis
    • In older adults
      • Symptoms often absent
      • Nonlocalized abdominal discomfort rather than dysuria
      • Cognitive impairment possible
      • Fever less likely


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