• Infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis
  • Lungs most commonly infected
  • 1/3 of world’s population has TB
  • Leading cause of death in patients with HIV/AIDs
  • Prevalence is decreasing in the United States

Risk factors

  • Homeless
  • Residents of inner-city neighborhoods
  • Foreign-born persons
  • Living or working in institutions (includes health care workers)
  • IV injecting drug users
  • Poverty, poor access to health care
  • Immunosuppression

Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR-TB)

  • Resistance to 2 of the most potent first-line anti-TB drugs
  • Extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) resistant to any fluoroquinolone plus any injectable antibiotic
  • Several causes for resistance occur
    • Incorrect prescribing
    • Lack of case management
    • Nonadherence


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