Tuberculosis : Nursing Assessment

Nursing Assessment History Physical symptoms Productive cough Night sweats Afternoon temperature elevation Weight loss Pleuritic chest pain Crackles over apices of lungs Sputum collection Nursing diagnoses Ineffective breathing pattern related to decreased lung capacity Ineffective airway clearance related to increased secretions, fatigue, and decreased lung capacity

Tuberculosis : Interprofessional care

Interprofessional care Hospitalization not necessary for most patients Infectious for first 2 weeks after starting treatment if sputum + Drug therapy used to prevent or treat active disease Need to monitor compliance Drug therapy Active disease Treatment is aggressive  Two phases of treatment Initial (8 weeks) Continuation (18 weeks) Four-drug regimen Isoniazid Rifampin (Rifadin) Pyrazinamide […]

Diagnostic Studies : Tuberculosis

Diagnostic Studies Tuberculin skin test (TST) AKA: Mantoux test Uses purified protein derivative (PPD) injected intradermally Assess for induration in 48 – 72 hours Presence of induration (not redness) at injection site indicates development of antibodies secondary to exposure to TB Positive if ≥15 mm induration in low-risk individuals Response decrease in immunocompromised patients Reactions […]

Complications : TB

Complications Miliary TB Large numbers of organisms spread via the bloodstream to distant organs Fatal if untreated Manifestations progress slowly and vary depending on which organs are infected Fever, cough, and lymphadenopathy occur Can include hepatomegaly and splenomegaly Pleural TB Chest pain, fever, cough, and a unilateral pleural effusion are common Pleural effusion Bacteria in […]

Clinical manifestations : TB

Clinical manifestations LTBI – asymptomatic Cannot spread TB bacteria to others Usually has a skin test or blood test result indicating TB infection Has a normal chest x-ray and a negative sputum smear Needs treatment for latent TB infection to prevent active TB disease Pulmonary TB Takes 2-3 weeks to develop symptoms Initial dry cough […]

Etiology and pathophysiology : Tuberculosis

Etiology and pathophysiology Spread via airborne particles Can be suspended in air for minutes to hours Transmission requires close, frequent, or prolonged exposure NOT spread by touching, sharing food utensils, kissing, or other physical contact Once causative organisms gains entrance, particles lodge in bronchioles and alveoli Local inflammatory reaction occurs Ghon lesion or focus – […]


Tuberculosis Infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis Lungs most commonly infected 1/3 of world’s population has TB Leading cause of death in patients with HIV/AIDs Prevalence is decreasing in the United States Risk factors Homeless Residents of inner-city neighborhoods Foreign-born persons Living or working in institutions (includes health care workers) IV injecting drug users Poverty, […]

Complications of fractures

Complications of fractures Prevent complications of immobility Constipation Renal calculi Cardiopulmonary deconditioning DVT/pulmonary emboli Infection High incidence in open fractures and soft tissue injuries Devitalized and contaminated tissue  an ideal medium for pathogens Prevention is key Can lead to chronic osteomyelitis Antibiotics for treatment Compartment Syndrome Swelling and increased pressure within a confined space Compromises […]

Nursing Management: Fractures

Nursing Management: Fractures Neurovascular assessment Peripheral vascular Color and temperature Capillary refill Pulses Edema Motor function Sensory function Paresthesia Nursing diagnoses Impaired physical mobility related to loss of integrity of bone structures, movement of bone fragments, and prescribed movement restrictions Risk for peripheral neurovascular dysfunction related to vascular insufficiency and nerve compression secondary to edema […]

Role of Nursing Personnel : Fractures

Role of Nursing Personnel Registered Nurse (RN) Perform neurovascular assessment on the affected extremity. Assess for manifestations of compartment syndrome. Monitor cast during drying for denting or flattening. Teach patient and caregiver about cast care and complications of casting. Determine correct body alignment to enhance traction. Instruct patient and caregiver about traction and correct body […]