Implications in mental illness


Sleep, arousal, pain perception, motor control, learning, and memory

Motor and memory disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and Huntington’s disease


Regulation of mood, cognition, perception, attention, vigilance, memory, cardiovascular functioning, and sleep-wake cycles

Mood disorders such as depression, schizophrenia, and mania


Regulation of movements and coordination, emotions, reward signals, learning, voluntary decision-making ability, and inhibits release of prolactin

High levels = mania and schizophrenia

Low levels = Parkinson’s disease and depression


Sleep-wake cycle, sexual behavior, appetite, anxiety, aggression, and pain perception

Depression and schizophrenia


Circadian rhythms, psychomotor activity, learning, cognition, appetite, and eating disorders

Epilepsy, depression, psychosis, stroke, anxiety, neuroinflammatory process, and neurodegeneration

Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid

Prevent postsynaptic excitation, interrupting the progression of the electrical impulse at the synaptic junction

Alterations may lead to anxiety disorders, movement disorders, and epilepsy


Regulation of spinal and brainstem reflexes

Glycine encephalopathy

Glutamate and Aspartate

Relay of sensory information and in the regulation of various motor and spinal reflexes

Huntington’s disease, temporal lobe epilepsy, and spinal cerebellar degeneration.

  • Neuroendocrinology is the study of the interaction between the nervous system and the endocrine system, and the effects of various hormones on cognitive, emotional, and behavioral functioning.
  • Studies have been conducted to determine genetic and environmental contributions to psychiatric disorders.
  • Possible genetic links to various psychological disorders have been discovered through these studies.
  • Psychoneuroimmunology is the study of the relationship between the immune system, the nervous system, and psychological processes.
  • Psychiatric nurses must have a specialized knowledge about, neuroanatomy and neurophysiology, neuronal processes, neuroendocrinology, circadian rhythms, genetic influences, PNI (psychoneuroimmunology), trauma, psychopharmacology, and diagnostic technology.


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