Implications in mental illness
Sleep, arousal, pain perception, motor control, learning, and memory
Motor and memory disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and Huntington’s disease
Regulation of mood, cognition, perception, attention, vigilance, memory, cardiovascular functioning, and sleep-wake cycles
Mood disorders such as depression, schizophrenia, and mania
Regulation of movements and coordination, emotions, reward signals, learning, voluntary decision-making ability, and inhibits release of prolactin
High levels = mania and schizophrenia
Low levels = Parkinson’s disease and depression
Sleep-wake cycle, sexual behavior, appetite, anxiety, aggression, and pain perception
Depression and schizophrenia
Circadian rhythms, psychomotor activity, learning, cognition, appetite, and eating disorders
Epilepsy, depression, psychosis, stroke, anxiety, neuroinflammatory process, and neurodegeneration
Prevent postsynaptic excitation, interrupting the progression of the electrical impulse at the synaptic junction
Alterations may lead to anxiety disorders, movement disorders, and epilepsy
Regulation of spinal and brainstem reflexes
Glutamate and Aspartate
Relay of sensory information and in the regulation of various motor and spinal reflexes
Huntington’s disease, temporal lobe epilepsy, and spinal cerebellar degeneration.
- Neuroendocrinology is the study of the interaction between the nervous system and the endocrine system, and the effects of various hormones on cognitive, emotional, and behavioral functioning.
- Studies have been conducted to determine genetic and environmental contributions to psychiatric disorders.
- Possible genetic links to various psychological disorders have been discovered through these studies.
- Psychoneuroimmunology is the study of the relationship between the immune system, the nervous system, and psychological processes.
- Psychiatric nurses must have a specialized knowledge about, neuroanatomy and neurophysiology, neuronal processes, neuroendocrinology, circadian rhythms, genetic influences, PNI (psychoneuroimmunology), trauma, psychopharmacology, and diagnostic technology.