Biological Implications

Biological Implications

  • Greater emphasis has been placed on the study of the biological foundations of cognitive processes, emotional processes, and behavioral processes
  • Review of the Brain
  1. Forebrain
    1. Cerebrum
      1. Consists of right and left hemispheres separated by corpus callosum
      2. Each hemisphere contains frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes
    2. Diencephalon
      1. Connects cerebrum with lower structures of the brain
      2. Consists of thalamus and hypothalamus, which are part of a loop of structures known as the limbic system
  2. Midbrain
    1. Mesencephalon
      1. Extends from the pons to the hypothalamus
      2. Responsible for integration of visual, auditory, and righting reflexes
  3. Hindbrain
    1. Pons
      1. Part of the brainstem
      2. Contains centers for respiration and is associated with sleep
    2. Medulla
      1. Connects the spinal cord and pons
      2. Responsible for heart rate, respiration, and reflexes like sneezing
    3. Cerebellum
      1. Connects to the brainstem through bundles of fiber tracts
      2. Concerned with involuntary movement
  • Autonomic nervous system is divided into the sympathetic (dominant in stressful situations) and parasympathetic systems (dominant in relaxed situations)
  • Synapse are junctions between the neurons while neurotransmitters are chemical messengers that convey information across synaptic clefts to neighboring target cells


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