Pediatrics : Non-communicating children’s pain checklist: 3 years and older

Non-communicating children’s pain checklist: 3 years and older Behavior are observed for 10 min Six subcategories are each scored on a scale 0 to 3 0: Not at all 1: Just a little 2: Fairly often 3: Very often Subcategories Vocal Social Facial Activity Body and limbs Physiological Cutoff scores 11 or higher indicates moderate […]

Pediatrics : Pain Assessment

Pain Assessment Intensity Assessment includes behavioral measures, multidimensional, and self-report. Self-report is used for children 4 years or older. Children under 4 are unable to accurately report their pain Multiple tools have been developed and researched as reliable Choose an appropriate pain tool that will adequately assess the infant or child’s pain Assess the location, […]

Pediatrics : Physiologic Data

Physiologic Data Current health status Health maintenance pattern and last visit Up to date? Safety Activity and exercise Nutrition Sleep Family history Health background Changes in family or family life Separation, divorce, or death of a parent Who lives in the household? Age-specific issues Newborns Children Daily routines Adolescents HEEADSSS Home environment, education & employment, […]

Pediatrics : Cranial Nerves

Cranial Nerves I—Olfactory Nerve Olfactory mucosa of nasal cavity (Smell) With eyes closed, have child identify odors, such as coffee, alcohol from a swab, or other smells; test each nostril separately. II—Optic Nerve Rods and cones of retina, optic nerve (Vision) Check for perception of light, visual acuity, peripheral vision, color vision, and normal optic […]

Pediatrics : Musculoskeletal system / Neurological system

Musculoskeletal system Length, position, and size of extremities are symmetric Joints Stable and symmetric with full range of motion and no crepitus or redness Spine Infants Spines should be without dimples or tufts of hair.  They should be midline with an overall C-shaped lateral curve Toddlers Appears squat with short legs and protuberant abdomen Preschoolers […]

Pediatrics : Abdomen / Genitalia

Abdomen Without tenderness, no guarding. Peristaltic waves can be visible in thinner children. Shape: Symmetric and without protrusions are around the umbilicus Infants and toddlers have rounded abdomens Children and adolescents should have flat abdomens Bowel sounds should be heard every 5 to 30 seconds The sections are named: Left upper quadrant Left lower quadrant […]

Pediatric : Circulatory System

Circulatory System Heart Inspection Precordial activity Shape and symmetry Heave: an obvious lifting of the chest wall during contraction, may indicate an enlarged heart Palpation Apical impulse Thrills Auscultation Rate and rhythm Age Heart Rate range (Beats/min) Average Heart Rate (Beats/min) Newborns 100-170 120 Infants to 2 years 80-130 110 2-6 years 70-120 100 6-10 […]

Pediatrics : Chest and Lungs /

Chest and Lungs Chest shape Infants: Shape is almost circular with anteroposterior diameter equaling the transverse or lateral diameter Children and adolescents: The transverse diameter to anteroposterior diameter changes to 2:1 Rib and sternum More soft and flexible in infants; symmetric and smooth, with no protrusions or bulges Movement  Symmetric, no retractions Infants: Irregular rhythms […]

Pediatrics : Ears / Nose / Mouth and Throat

Ears During the tympanic membrane exam: In infants – Pull pinna down and back In children older than 3 – Pull pinna up and back The ear canal should be pink with fine hairs The tympanic membrane should be pearly pink, or gray The light reflex should be visible Alignment The top of the auricles […]

Pediatrics : Hair and Scalp / Head and Neck

Hair and scalp Hair should be evenly distributed, smooth, and strong Manifestations of nutritional deficiencies include hair that is stringy, dull, brittle, and dry Hair loss or balding spots on infants can indicate the child is spending too much time in the same position Scalp should be clean and absent from any scaliness, infestations, and […]