Role of immune system

Role of immune system Immune response is to reject or destroy cancer cells May be inadequate as cancer cells arise from normal human cells Some cancer cells have changes on their surface antigens Tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) Cytotoxic  T cells Kill tumor cells directly Produce cytokines Natural killer cells and activated macrophages can lyse tumor cells […]

Gene mutations: Development of cancer

Gene mutations: Development of cancer Inherited About 5% to 10% of all cancers or predisposition to cancers are inherited Lead to a very high risk for cancer Acquired Most cancers are acquired Chemical Many chemicals have been identified as carcinogens over the years Benzene Arsenic Formaldehyde Radiation Radiation can cause cancer in almost any human […]

Biology of Cancer

Biology of Cancer Two major dysfunctions in the process of cancer development: Defective cell proliferation (growth) Stem cells Undifferentiated cells Ultimately differentiate and become mature, functioning cells of only that tissue All cells are controlled by an intracellular mechanism that determines proliferation Orderly process progressing from a state of immaturity to a state of maturity […]


Cancer Cancer – Incidence Group of diseases characterized by uncontrolled and unregulated growth of cells Occurs in people of all ages Majority of cases are diagnosed in those over age 55 Both the incidence and mortality rate of cancer has been declining Incidences of lung, colorectal, breast, and oral cancer have decreased Other cancers have […]

Nursing and Interprofessional management : Anemia Sickle Cell Disease

Nursing and Interprofessional management Care is directed toward Prevention of sequelae from disease Alleviating manifestations from complications Minimizing end-organ damage Promptly treating serious sequelae Hospitalized patients in sickle cell crisis O2 for hypoxia and to control sickling Vigilance for respiratory failure Rest with DVT prophylaxis Administration of fluids and electrolytes Transfusion therapy Chelation therapy with […]

Clinical manifestations : Sickle Cell Disease

Clinical manifestations Typical patient is asymptomatic except during sickling episodes Symptoms may include Pain from tissue hypoxia and damage Pallor of mucous membranes Jaundice from hemolysis Prone to gallstones (cholelithiasis) Complications Body organ Complications Brain Thrombosis or hemorrhage causing paralysis, sensory deficits, death Eye Hemorrhage Retinal detachment Blindness Retinopathy Lung Acute chest syndrome Pulmonary hypertension […]

Sickle Cell Disease

Sickle Cell Disease Group of inherited, autosomal recessive disorders Characterized by presence of an abnormal form of Hgb in RBC Genetic disorder usually identified during routine neonatal screening Incurable and often fatal by middle age Etiology and pathophysiology Abnormal hemoglobin, HgbS, causes the RBC to stiffen and elongate Erythrocytes take on a sickle shape in […]

Anemia caused by blood loss (Acute and Chronic)

Anemia caused by blood loss (Acute and Chronic) Anemia resulting from blood loss may be caused by either acute or chronic problems Acute blood loss occurs as a result of sudden hemorrhage Sources of chronic blood loss are similar to those of iron-deficiency anemia Acute blood loss Causes of sudden hemorrhage Trauma Complications of surgery […]

Iron-deficiency anemia

Iron-deficiency anemia Inadequate dietary intake 5% to 10% of ingested iron is absorbed Malabsorption Iron absorption occurs in the duodenum Diseases or surgery that alter, destroy, or remove absorption surface of this area of intestine cause anemia Blood loss 2 mL whole blood contain 1 mg iron Major cause of iron deficiency in adults Chronic […]

Nutritional therapy for erythropoiesis

Nutritional therapy for erythropoiesis Nutrient Role Source Cobalamin (Vitamin B12) RBC maturation Red meats, especially liver, eggs, enriched grain products, milk and dairy foods, fish Copper Mobilization of iron from tissues to plasma Shellfish, whole grains, beans, nuts, potatoes, organ meats Folic Acid RBC maturation Green leafy vegetables, liver, meat, fish, legumes, whole grains, orange […]