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Anemia caused by blood loss (Acute and Chronic)

Anemia caused by blood loss (Acute and Chronic)

  • Anemia resulting from blood loss may be caused by either acute or chronic problems
    • Acute blood loss occurs as a result of sudden hemorrhage
    • Sources of chronic blood loss are similar to those of iron-deficiency anemia
  • Acute blood loss
    • Causes of sudden hemorrhage
      • Trauma
      • Complications of surgery
      • Conditions or diseases that disrupt vascular integrity
        • Hypovolemic shock
        • Compensatory increased plasma volume with diminished O2 -carrying RBCs
    • Clinical manifestations
      • Pain
        • Internal hemorrhage
          • Tissue distention, organ displacement, nerve compression
        • Retroperitoneal bleeding
          • Numbness
          • Pain in lower extremities
      • Shock is major complication
    • Diagnostic studies
      • With sudden blood volume loss, values may seem normal or high for 2 to 3 days
      • Once plasma volume is replaced, low RBC concentrations become evident
        • Low RBC, Hgb, and Hct levels show up and reflect actual blood loss
    • Interprofessional care
      • Replacing blood volume to prevent shock
      • Identifying source of hemorrhage and stopping blood loss
      • Correcting RBC loss
      • Providing supplemental iron
      • May be impossible to prevent if caused by trauma
      • Postoperative patients
        • Monitor blood loss
        • Administer blood products for anemia
      • No need for long-term treatment
    • Hemolytic Anemia

      • General manifestations of anemia
      • Specific manifestations including
        • Jaundice
        • Enlargement of the spleen and liver
      • Maintenance of renal function is a major focus of treatment