Hearing loss and deafness

Hearing loss and deafness Causes of hearing loss External ear Impacted cerumen Foreign bodies External otitis Middle ear Otitis media Serous otitis Otosclerosis Tympanic membrane trauma Cholesteatoma Acoustic neuroma Inner ear Ménière’s disease Noise-induced hearing loss Presbycusis Ototoxicity Types of hearing loss Conductive hearing loss Sound transmission to inner ear impaired Patients actually hear better […]

Glaucoma – Nursing Assessment

Nursing Assessment Patient’s ability to understand and comply with treatment Patient’s psychologic reaction to sight-threatening disorder Family reaction and support Caregiver availability Nursing diagnoses Risk for injury related to visual acuity deficits Self-care deficits related to visual acuity deficits Acute pain related to pathophysiologic process and surgical correction Noncompliance related to the inconvenience and side […]


Glaucoma A group of disorders characterized by Increased IOP and consequences of elevated pressure Optic nerve atrophy Peripheral visual field loss Second leading cause of blindness in U.S. Leading cause of blindness in African Americans Many are unaware Incidence increases with age Preventable Genetic traits Etiology and pathophysiology Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) Most common type […]

Nursing assessment – Cataracts

Nursing assessment Visual acuity Psychosocial impact of visual disability Level of knowledge of disease Comfort and ability to comply with postoperative treatment Nursing diagnosis Self-care deficits related to visual deficit Anxiety related to lack of knowledge about the surgical and postoperative experience Planning Preoperative goals Make informed decisions regarding therapeutic options Experience minimal anxiety Postoperative […]

Interprofessional care Cataracts

Interprofessional care Nonsurgical therapy Visual aids  Changing eyewear prescription Reading glasses Magnifiers Increased lighting Surgical therapy Preoperative phase History and physical assessment Eye drops Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory Dilating Dark glasses minimize photophobia Monitor for systemic toxicity Intraoperative phase Cataract extraction is an intraocular procedure An operating microscope is used Phacoemulsification Most common form of cataract surgery […]


Cataracts Opacity within the lens May occur in one or both eyes Cataract removal is most common surgical procedure in United States Etiology and Pathophysiology Influencing factors Age Blunt trauma Congenital factors Radiation/UV light exposure Long-term corticosteroid use Ocular inflammation Clinical manifestation Decrease in vision Abnormal color perception Glaring of vision Nursing Diagnostics History and […]

Oral Fluid Replacement

Oral Fluid Replacement Used to correct mild fluid and electrolyte deficits Water Glucose Potassium Sodium IV Fluids Purposes Maintenance When oral intake is not adequate Replacement When losses have occurred Types of fluids categorized by tonicity Hypotonic More water than electrolytes Pure water lyses RBCs Water moves from ECF to ICF by osmosis Usually maintenance […]

Magnesium Imbalances: Causes and Manifestations

Magnesium Roles of Magnesium Coenzyme in metabolism of carbohydrates Required for DNA and protein synthesis Blood glucose control BP regulation Necessary for ATP production Acts directly on myoneural junction Important for normal cardiac function 50% to 60% contained in bone Absorbed in GI tract Excreted by kidneys Hypermagnesemia High serum Mg caused by Increased intake […]

Phosphate Imbalances: Causes and Manifestations

Phosphate Primary anion in ICF Essential to function of muscle, red blood cells, and nervous system Involved in acid-base buffering system, ATP production, cellular uptake of glucose, and metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats Serum levels controlled by parathyroid hormone Maintenance requires adequate renal functioning Reciprocal relationship with calcium Hyperphosphatemia High serum PO43- caused by […]

Calcium Imbalances: Causes and Manifestations

Nursing implementation Treat cause Oral or IV calcium supplements Rebreathe into paper bag Treat pain and anxiety to prevent hyperventilation-induced respiratory alkalosis Calcium Imbalances: Causes and Manifestations Hypercalcemia (Ca2+ >10.2 mg/dL [2.55 mmol/L]) Hypocalcemia (Ca2+ <8.6 mg/dL [2.15 mmol/L]) Cause Increased Total Calcium Decreased Total Calcium Hyperparathyroidism Primary hypoparathyroidism Hematologic malignancy Renal insufficiency Malignancies with […]