Calcium Imbalances: Causes and Manifestations

    • Nursing implementation
      • Treat cause
      • Oral or IV calcium supplements
      • Rebreathe into paper bag
      • Treat pain and anxiety to prevent hyperventilation-induced respiratory alkalosis

Calcium Imbalances: Causes and Manifestations

Hypercalcemia (Ca2+ >10.2 mg/dL [2.55 mmol/L])

Hypocalcemia (Ca2+ <8.6 mg/dL [2.15 mmol/L])


  • Increased Total Calcium
  • Decreased Total Calcium
  • Hyperparathyroidism
  • Primary hypoparathyroidism
  • Hematologic malignancy
  • Renal insufficiency
  • Malignancies with bone metastasis
  • Acute pancreatitis
  • Prolonged immobilization
  • Elevated phosphorus
  • Vitamin A or D overdose
  • Vitamin D deficiency, malnutrition
  • Paget’s disease
  • Magnesium deficiency
  • Adrenal insufficiency
  • Bisphosphonates
  • Thyrotoxicosis
  • Tumor lysis syndrome
  • Thiazide diuretics
  • Loop diuretics
  • Milk-alkali syndrome
  • Chronic alcoholism
  • Calcium-containing antacids
  • Diarrhea
  • Mycobacterium infection
  • Decreased Serum albumin

Increased Ionized Calcium

Decreased Ionized Calcium

  • Acidosis
  • Alkalosis
  • Excess administration of citrated blood

ECG changes

  • Shortened ST segment
  • Elongation of ST segment
  • Shortened QT interval
  • Prolonged QT interval
  • Ventricular dysrhythmias
  • Ventricular tachycardia
  • Increased digitalis effect


More Posts

Learn How To Control Asthma

What Is Asthma? Asthma is a disease that affects your lungs. It is one of the most common long-term diseases of children, but adults can

What Women Say About Migraine

January 25, 2019 Office on Women’s Health What’s a migraine headache like? Migraine headaches affect more women than men, and each woman who lives with this

Know Your Risk for Heart Disease

Print You can take steps to lower your risk for heart disease by changing the factors you can control. Several health conditions, your lifestyle, and