Pressure Ulcers

Pressure Ulcers Localized injury to the skin and/or underlying tissue (usually over a bony prominence) as a result of pressure or pressure in combination with shear Located at tailbone, heels, hips, shoulder blades, ankles, elbows, ears, and the back of your head. Risk factors for pressure ulcers Advanced age Immobility Anemia Impaired circulation Contractures Incontinence […]

Role of Nursing Personnel

Role of Nursing Personnel Registered Nurse (RN) Assess patients for pressure ulcer risk and develop a plan of care to prevent the development of pressure ulcers. Assess patients for factors that may delay wound healing and develop a plan of care to address these factors. Assess and document initial wound appearance, including wound size, depth, […]

Healing Process

Healing Process The final phase of the inflammation process is healing Healing includes two major components: Regeneration Replacement of lost cells and tissues with cells of the same type Repair Occurs by primary, secondary, or tertiary intention Primary intention – When wound margins are neatly approximated, as in a surgical incision or a paper cut […]

Nursing and Interprofessional management

Nursing and Interprofessional management Nursing Implementation Health Promotion Prevention of injury Adequate nutrition Early recognition of inflammation Immediate treatment Acute Intervention Observation Vital signs Fever management Drug therapy Aspirin Acetaminophen NSAIDs Corticosteroids RICE Rest Helps the body use its nutrients and O2 for the healing process. The repair process is facilitated by allowing fibrin and […]

Types of Inflammation

Types of Inflammation Acute Healing occurs in 2 to 3 weeks, usually leaving no residual damage Neutrophils are predominant cell type at site of inflammation Subacute Has same features as acute inflammation but persists longer Chronic May last for years Injurious agent persists or repeats injury to site Predominant cell types involved are lymphocytes and […]

Inflammation : Exudate

Exudate Consists of fluid and leukocytes that move from circulation to site of injury Nature and quantity depend on type and severity of injury and tissues involved Types of inflammatory exudate Serous Serosangulneous Fibrinous Hemorrhagic Purulent (pus) Catarrhal Clinical manifestations Local response to inflammation Manifestations Cause Redness Hyperemia from vasodilation Heat Increased metabolism at inflammatory […]

Inflammation : Chemical mediators

Chemical mediators Histamine Stored in granules of basophils, mast cells, platelets Causes vasodilation and increased capillary permeability Serotonin Stored in platelets, mast cells, enterochromaffin cells of GI tract Causes vasodilation and increased capillary permeability like histamine. Stimulates smooth muscle contraction Kinins (e.g., bradykinin) Produced from precursor factor kininogen as a result of activation of Hageman […]

Inflammation : Cellular response

Cellular response Blood flow through capillaries in area of inflammation slows as fluid is lost and viscosity increases Neutrophils and monocytes move to inner surface of capillaries and then migrate through capillary wall to site of injury Chemotaxis Directional migration of WBCs along concentration gradient of chemotactic factors Mechanism for accumulating neutrophils and monocytes at […]

Inflammation : Vascular response

Inflammation Sequential response to cell injury that: Neutralizes and dilutes inflammatory agent Removes necrotic materials Establishes an environment suitable for healing and repair Inflammatory response can be divided into Vascular response Cellular response Formation of exudate Healing Vascular response After cell injury, arterioles in area briefly undergo transient vasoconstriction After release of histamine and other […]

Health Promotion

Health Promotion Prevention Teach about negative effects Provide support Early detection Initiate brief interventional techniques Refer for treatment Gerontologic Considerations Older adults are often unaware of their substance use problems Difficult to recognize Don’t fit the image of users Symptoms can mimic medical conditions i.e. liver damage and cardiovascular, GI, and endocrine problems Use may […]