Inflammation : Exudate

Exudate

  • Consists of fluid and leukocytes that move from circulation to site of injury
  • Nature and quantity depend on type and severity of injury and tissues involved
  • Types of inflammatory exudate
    • Serous
    • Serosangulneous
    • Fibrinous
    • Hemorrhagic
    • Purulent (pus)
    • Catarrhal

Clinical manifestations

  • Local response to inflammation

Manifestations

Cause

Redness

Hyperemia from vasodilation

Heat

Increased metabolism at inflammatory site

Pain

Change in pH. Nerve stimulation by chemicals (e.g., histamine, prostaglandins).

Pressure from fluid exudate

Swelling

Fluid shift to interstitial spaces.

Fluid exudate accumulation

Loss of function

Swelling and pain

  • Systemic response to inflammation
    • Increased WBC count with a shift to the left
    • Malaise
    • Nausea and anorexia
    • Increased pulse and respiratory rate
    • Fever
      • Onset is triggered by release of cytokines
      • Cytokines cause fever by initiating metabolic changes in temperature-regulating center in hypothalamus
      • Epinephrine released from adrenal medulla increases metabolic rate
      • Patient then experiences chills and shivering
      • Body is hot, yet person seeks warmth until circulating temperature reaches core body temperature

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