Pathophysiology : Systolic heart failure


  • Systolic heart failure
    • HFrEF – HF with reduced EF
    • Inability to pump blood forward
    • Caused by
      • Impaired contractile function
      • Increased afterload
      • Cardiomyopathy
      • Mechanical abnormalities
    • Decreased LV ejection fraction (EF)
  • Diastolic heart failure
    • HFpEF – HF with preserved EF
    • Impaired ability of the ventricles to relax and fill during diastole, resulting in decreased stroke volume and CO
    • Result of left ventricular hypertrophy from hypertension, older age, female, diabetes, obesity
    • Same end result as systolic failure
  • Mixed heart failure
    • Mixed systolic and diastolic failure
      • Seen in disease states such as dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM)
      • Poor EFs (<35%)
      • High pulmonary pressures
      • Biventricular failure
        • Both ventricles may be dilated and have poor filling and emptying capacity
  • Right-sided heart failure
    • RV fails to pump effectively
    • Fluid backs up in venous system
    • Fluid moves into tissues and organs
    • Left-sided HF is most common cause
      • Other causes include RV infarction, PE, and cor pulmonale (RV dilation and hypertrophy)
  • Heart failure
    • Ventricular failure leads to:
      • Low blood pressure (BP)
      • Low CO
      • Poor renal perfusion
    • Abrupt or subtle onset
    • Compensatory mechanisms mobilized to maintain adequate CO.


More Posts

Heart Attack Symptoms

Español Not all heart attacks begin with the sudden and crushing chest pain that comes when the blood flow to heart gets blocked. Heart attack

Sun Safety

Skin cancer is the most common cancer in the U.S. Too much sun can cause skin cancer. Spending time outside is a great way to

Leave Fireworks to the Experts

Summer is synonymous with barbecues, parades and fireworks. The National Safety Council advises everyone to enjoy fireworks at public displays conducted by professionals, and not