Diagnosis of cancer

Diagnosis of cancer

  • Diagnostic plan includes
    • Comprehensive Health History
    • Identification of risk factors
    • Physical examination
    • Specific diagnostic studies
  • Indicated diagnostic studies depend on site of cancer
    • Lab works
    • Cytology studies
    • Chest x-ray
    • Endoscopic examinations
    • Radiographic studies
    • Radioisotope scans
    • PET scan
    • Tumor markers
    • Genetic markers
    • Bone marrow examination
    • Biopsy
  • Patient may experience fear and anxiety
    • Actively listen to patient’s concerns
    • Manage your own discomfort
    • Give clear explanations; repeat if necessary
    • Give written information for reinforcement
    • Refer to oncology team when possible
  • Manage your own discomfort
    • Avoid
      • Communication patterns that may hinder exploration of feelings
      • Use of overly technical language
    • Encourage patients to share the meaning of their experience
    • Listening is an important skill at this time
  • Prevention is key
    • The war on cancer will not be won with drugs or radiation therapy
    • A stronger emphasis on prevention is needed
    • Nurses have an essential role


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