Classification of cancer

Classification of cancer

  • Tumors can be classified by
    • Anatomic site
    • Histology
      • Grading severity
    • Extent of disease
      • Staging
  • Classification systems provide a standardized way to
    • Communicate with health care team
    • Prepare and evaluate treatment plan
    • Determine prognosis
    • Compare groups statistically
  • Anatomic site classification
    • Identified by tissue of origin
    • Carcinomas originate from
      • Embryonal ectoderm (skin, glands)
      • Endoderm (mucous membrane of respiratory tract, GI and GU tracts)
    • Sarcomas originate from
      • Embryonal mesoderm (connective tissue, muscle, bone, and fat)
    • Lymphomas and leukemias originate from
      • Hematopoietic system
  • Four grades of abnormal cells
    • Grade I
      • Tumor limited to tissue of origin; localized tumor growth
    • Grade II
      • Limited local spread
    • Grade III
      • Extensive local and regional spread
    • Grade IV
      • Cells are immature and primitive and undifferentiated
      • Cell of origin is difficult to determine
      • Metastasis
  • TNM classification system
    • Anatomic extent of disease is based on 3 parameters:
      • Tumor size and invasiveness (T)
      • Spread to lymph nodes (N)
      • Metastasis (M)
  • Staging
    • Performed initially and at several evaluation points
      • Clinical staging
        • Done at completion of diagnostic workup to guide effective treatment selection
          • Bone and liver scans, ultrasonography, CT, MRI, PET scans
      • Surgical staging
        • Determined by surgical excision, exploration, and/or lymph node sampling
        • Exploratory surgical staging is being used less frequently


More Posts

How to Grill Safely

What You Need to Know When handling raw meat, chicken and other poultry, and seafood Separate it from other food Refrigerate it before grilling Wash

The Importance of Urgent Care

Urgent care centers are a vital part of the healthcare system. They provide convenient, affordable, and quality care for a wide range of minor illnesses

Common Urgent Care Conditions

These are just a few of the common urgent care conditions. If you are experiencing any of these symptoms, it is important to see a