Classification of cancer

Classification of cancer

  • Tumors can be classified by
    • Anatomic site
    • Histology
      • Grading severity
    • Extent of disease
      • Staging
  • Classification systems provide a standardized way to
    • Communicate with health care team
    • Prepare and evaluate treatment plan
    • Determine prognosis
    • Compare groups statistically
  • Anatomic site classification
    • Identified by tissue of origin
    • Carcinomas originate from
      • Embryonal ectoderm (skin, glands)
      • Endoderm (mucous membrane of respiratory tract, GI and GU tracts)
    • Sarcomas originate from
      • Embryonal mesoderm (connective tissue, muscle, bone, and fat)
    • Lymphomas and leukemias originate from
      • Hematopoietic system
  • Four grades of abnormal cells
    • Grade I
      • Tumor limited to tissue of origin; localized tumor growth
    • Grade II
      • Limited local spread
    • Grade III
      • Extensive local and regional spread
    • Grade IV
      • Cells are immature and primitive and undifferentiated
      • Cell of origin is difficult to determine
      • Metastasis
  • TNM classification system
    • Anatomic extent of disease is based on 3 parameters:
      • Tumor size and invasiveness (T)
      • Spread to lymph nodes (N)
      • Metastasis (M)
  • Staging
    • Performed initially and at several evaluation points
      • Clinical staging
        • Done at completion of diagnostic workup to guide effective treatment selection
          • Bone and liver scans, ultrasonography, CT, MRI, PET scans
      • Surgical staging
        • Determined by surgical excision, exploration, and/or lymph node sampling
        • Exploratory surgical staging is being used less frequently

Share:

More Posts

Aspirin overdose

Aspirin is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used to relieve mild to moderate aches and pains, swelling, and fever. Aspirin overdose occurs when someone accidentally

Pulmonary edema

Pulmonary edema is an abnormal buildup of fluid in the lungs. This buildup of fluid leads to shortness of breath. Causes Pulmonary edema is often