Children and Adolescents
- It is often difficult to determine whether a child’s behavior indicates emotional problems.
- An emotional problem exists if behavioral manifestations:
- Are not age appropriate
- Deviate from cultural norms
- Interfere with adaptive functioning
- Intellectual developmental disorder (I D D) has its onset prior to age 18 years and is characterized by impairments in measured intellectual performance and adaptive skills across multiple domains.
- Genetic Factors
- Research studies have linked genetic mutations to autism spectrum disorder, although no one gene has been identified to cause this.
- Temperament, the style of behavior habitually used to cope with demands of the environment, is a constitutional factor thought to be genetically determined.
- In the case of the difficult-child temperament, the caregiver is unable to respond positively to the child, there is an increased risk of insecure attachment, developmental problems, and mental disorders
- Individuals, including children reacting in different ways to the same situation based on their unique temperament.
- Biochemical Factors
- This includes alterations in neurotransmitters such as inadequate norepinephrine and serotonin levels which are related to depression and suicide.
- Environmental Factors
- This cause stress to children and adolescents and shape their development psychological conditions.
- Traumatic events such as marital discord, overcrowding parental mental illness have been linked to lead to higher probability of mental and physical issues occuring
Autism Spectrum Disorder
- Autism spectrum disorder (A S D) is characterized by a withdrawal of the child into the self and into a fantasy world of his or her own creation.
- Prevalence is about 1 in 59 children.
- A S D occurs more often in boys than in girls.
- Onset occurs in early childhood.
- A S D often runs a chronic course.