Pneumonia Acute infection of lung parenchyma Associated with significant morbidity and mortality rates Pneumonia and influenza are 8th leading cause of death in the U.S. Etiology Likely to result when defense mechanisms become incompetent or overwhelmed Decreased cough and epiglottal reflexes may allow aspiration Mucociliary mechanism impaired Pollution Cigarette smoking Upper respiratory infections Tracheal intubation […]

Nursing diagnoses : Asthma

Nursing diagnoses Ineffective airway clearance related to bronchospasm, excessive mucus production, tenacious secretions, and fatigue Anxiety related to difficulty breathing, perceived or actual loss of control, and fear of suffocation Deficient knowledge related to lack of information and education about asthma and its treatment Planning Minimal symptoms during the day and night Acceptable activity levels […]

Nursing management  : Asthma

Nursing management  Health promotion Teach patient to identify and avoid known triggers Use dust covers Use scarves or masks for cold air Avoid aspirin and NSAIDs Prompt diagnosis and treatment of upper respiratory infections and sinusitis may prevent asthma exacerbation Fluid intake of 2 to 3 L every day Good nutrition Adequate rest Nursing Assessment […]

Drug therapy : Asthma

Drug therapy Three types of anti-inflammatory drugs Corticosteroids (e.g., beclomethasone, budesonide) Suppress inflammatory response Reduce bronchial hyper-responsiveness Decrease mucous production Inhaled form is used in long-term control Systemic form to control exacerbations and manage persistent asthma Oropharyngeal candidiasis, hoarseness, and a dry cough are local side effects of inhaled drug Can be reduced using a […]

Interprofessional care : Asthma

Interprofessional care The current guidelines focus on Assessing the severity of the disease at diagnosis and initial treatment and then Monitoring periodically to control the disease Intermittent and persistent asthma Avoid triggers of acute attacks Pre-medicate before exercising Short-term (rescue or reliever) medication Long-term or controller medication Acute asthma exacerbations Respiratory distress Treatment depends upon […]

Diagnostic studies : Asthma

Diagnostic studies Detailed history and physical exam Spirometry Peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) Chest x-ray Oximetry Allergy testing Blood levels of eosinophils Diagnostic Assessment History and physical examination Spirometry, including response to bronchodilator therapy Peak expiratory low rate (PEFR) Chest xray Measurement of oximetry Allergy skin testing (if indicated) Blood level of eosinophils and IgE […]

Clinical manifestation : Asthma

Clinical manifestation Recurrent episodes of wheezing, breathlessness, cough, and tight chest Expiration may be prolonged. Inspiration-expiration ratio of 1:2 to 1:3 or 1:4 Bronchospasm, edema, and mucus in bronchioles narrow the airways Air takes longer to move out Most common manifestations Cough Shortness of breath (dyspnea) Wheezing Chest tightness Variable airflow obstruction Complications and classification […]

Pathophysiology : Asthma

Pathophysiology Primary response is chronic inflammation from exposure to allergens or irritants Leading to airway bronchoconstriction, hyper-responsiveness, and edema of airways Exposure to allergens or irritants initiates inflammatory cascade Inflammatory mediators cause early-phase response Vascular congestion Edema formation Production of thick, tenacious mucus Bronchial muscle spasm Thickening of airway walls Early-phase response As the inflammatory […]


Asthma Heterogeneous disease characterized by a combination of clinical manifestations along with reversible expiratory airflow limitation or bronchial hyper-responsiveness Affects about 18.8 million Americans Women are 62% more likely to have asthma than men Older adults may be undiagnosed Risk factors and triggers Related to patient (e.g., genetic factors) Related to environment (e.g., pollen) Male […]

Tuberculosis : Nursing implementation

Nursing implementation Health Promotion Ultimate goal in the United States is eradication Selective screening programs in high-risk groups to detect TB Treatment of LTBI Follow-up positive TST results Reportable disease Address social determinants of TB Acute Care Airborne isolation Single-occupancy room with 6-12 airflow exchanges/hour Health care workers wear high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) masks Immediate […]