Learning Center Articles

Nursing diagnoses : Asthma

  • Nursing diagnoses
    • Ineffective airway clearance related to bronchospasm, excessive mucus production, tenacious secretions, and fatigue
    • Anxiety related to difficulty breathing, perceived or actual loss of control, and fear of suffocation
    • Deficient knowledge related to lack of information and education about asthma and its treatment
  • Planning
    • Minimal symptoms during the day and night
    • Acceptable activity levels (including exercise and other physical activity)
    • Maintenance of greater than 80% of personal best PEFR
    • Few or no adverse effects of therapy
    • No acute exacerbations of asthma
    • Adequate knowledge to participate in and carry out the plan of care.
  • Nursing implementation
    • Important patient teaching
      • Seek medical attention for bronchospasm or when severe side effects occur
      • Maintain good nutrition
      • Exercise within limits of tolerance
      • Uninterrupted sleep is important
      • Written asthma action plan
      • Measure peak flow at least daily
      • Patients with asthma frequently do not perceive changes in their breathing
    • Peak flow results
      • Green Zone
        • Usually 80% to 100% of personal best
        • Remain on medications
      • Yellow Zone
        • Usually 50% to 80% of personal best
        • Indicates caution
        • Something is triggering asthma.
      • Red Zone
        • 50% or less of personal best
        • Indicates serious problem
        • Definitive action must be taken with health care provider
      • Evaluation
        • Maintain clear airway with removal of excessive secretions
        • Have normal (for the individual) breath sounds and respiratory rate
        • Report decreased anxiety with increased control of respirations
        • Describe the disease process and treatment regimen
        • Demonstrate correct administration of inhaled drugs
        • Express confidence in ability for long-term management of asthma

Cultural considerations: Asthma

  • African Americans and Hispanics have higher rates of poorly controlled asthma and deaths
    • Disparities in socioeconomic status and access to proper health care
    • Cultural beliefs about management of asthma