The Impact of Preexisting Conditions

The Impact of Preexisting Conditions

  • Values, attitudes, and beliefs
    • Learned ways of thinking
  • Culture and religion
    • Cultural mores, norms, ideas, and customs provide the basis for our way of thinking
  • Social status
    • High-status persons often convey their high-power position with gestures of hands on hips, power dressing, greater height, and more distance when communicating with individuals considered to be of lower social status.
  • Gender
    • Masculine and feminine gestures influence messages conveyed in communication with others.
  • Age or developmental level
    • Example: The influence of developmental level on communication is especially evident during adolescence, with words such as dude, cool, awesome, and others.
  • The environment in which the transaction takes place
    • Territoriality, density, and distance are aspects of environment that communicate messages.
      • Territoriality: The innate tendency to own space
      • Density: The number of people within a given environmental space
      • Distance: The means by which various cultures use space to communicate
  • There are four kinds of distance in interpersonal interactions.
    • Intimate distance: The closest distance that individuals allow between themselves and others
    • Personal distance: The distance for interactions that are personal in nature
    • Social distance: The distance for conversation with strangers or acquaintances
    • Public distance: The distance for speaking in public or yelling to someone some distance away


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