Maintaining fluid balance

    • Maintaining fluid balance
      • Measurement of intake and output
        • Fluids to be measured
        • Nursing responsibility: To identify when fluids should be measured
          • Receiving IV therapy
          • Who underwent major surgery
          • Receiving diuretic or corticosteroid therapy
          • With severe thermal burns or injuries
          • With renal disease or damage
          • With congestive heart failure
          • With dehydration
          • With diabetes mellitus
          • With oliguria
          • In respiratory distress
          • With chronic lung disease
        • Diaper weighing technique
          • 1 g of wet diaper weight = 1 mL urine
      • Special needs when the child is not permitted to take fluids by mouth
        • To ensure that they do not receive fluids
          • A sign can be placed in some obvious place, such as over their beds or on their shirts, to alert others to the NPO status. 
        • To prevent the temptation to drink
          • Fluids should not be left at the bedside.
        • Oral hygiene, a part of routine hygienic care, is especially important when fluids are restricted or withheld
          • Young children who cannot brush their teeth or rinse their mouth without swallowing fluid, the mouth and teeth can be cleansed and kept moist by swabbing with saline-moistened gauze.

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