Infant: Developing trust and sensorimotor thought

        • Age-specific guidelines for preparation
          • Infant: Developing trust and sensorimotor thought
            • Attachment to Parent
              • Involve parent in procedure if desired.
              • Keep parent in infant’s line of vision.
              • If parent is unable to be with infant, place familiar object with infant (e.g., stuffed toy).
            • Stranger Anxiety
              • Have usual caregivers perform or assist with procedure.
              • Make advances slowly and in a nonthreatening manner.
              • Limit number of strangers entering room during procedure.
            • Sensorimotor Phase of Learning
              • During procedure, use sensory soothing measures (e.g., stroking skin, talking softly, giving pacifier).
              • Use analgesics (e.g., topical anesthetic, intravenous [IV] opioid) to control discomfort.
              • Cuddle and hug infant after stressful procedure; encourage parent to comfort infant.
            • Increased Muscle Control
              • Expect older infants to resist.
              • Restrain adequately.
              • Keep harmful objects out of reach.
            • Memory for Past Experiences
              • Realize that older infants may associate objects, places, or people with prior painful experiences and will cry and resist at the sight of them
              • Keep frightening objects out of view.
              • Perform painful procedures in a separate room, not in crib (or bed).
              • Use nonintrusive procedures whenever possible (e.g., axillary or tympanic temperatures, oral medications).
            • Imitation of Gestures
              • Model desired behavior (e.g., opening mouth).

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