Family, Social, Cultural, and Religious Influences on Child Health Promotion : Family roles

Family roles

  • All family members have designated roles within the family unit
  • Many cultural & societal influences on family roles— however, this is slowly changing

Family stress theory

  • Families encounter stressors (events that cause stress and have the potential to effect a change in the family social system), including 
    • Predictable (e.g., parenthood)
    • Unpredictable (e.g., illness, unemployment)
  • They are cumulative, involving simultaneous demands from work, family, and community life.

Developmental theory

  • An outgrowth of several theories of development.
    • Duvall’s Developmental stages of the Family
      • Stage I: Marriage and an Independent Home: The Joining of Families
        • Re-establish couple identity.
        • Realign relationships with extended family.
        • Make decisions regarding parenthood.
      • Stage II: Families with Infants
        • Integrate infants into the family unit.
        • Accommodate to new parenting and grand-parenting roles.
        • Maintain marital bond.
      • Stage III: Families with Preschoolers
        • Socialize children.
        • Parents and children adjust to separation.
      • Stage IV: Families with Schoolchildren
        • Children develop peer relations.
        • Parents adjust to their children’s peer and school influences.
      • Stage V: Families with Teenagers
        • Adolescents develop increasing autonomy.
        • Parents refocus on midlife marital and career issues.
        • Parents begin a shift toward concern for the older generation.
      • Stage VI: Families as Launching Centers
        • Parents and young adults establish independent identities.
        • Parents renegotiate marital relationship.
      • Stage VII: Middle-Aged Families
        • Reinvest in couple identity with concurrent development of independent interests.
        • Realign relationships to include in-laws and grandchildren.
        • Deal with disabilities and death of older generation
      • Stage VIII: Aging Families
        • Shift from work role to leisure and semiretirement or full retirement.
        • Maintain couple and individual functioning while adapting to the aging process.
        • Prepare for own death and dealing with the loss of spouse and/or siblings and other peers.

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