Effects of aging

  Effects of aging Drug-receptor interaction Brain receptors become more sensitive, making psychoactive drugs very potent. Metabolism Liver mass shrinks. Hepatic blood flow and enzyme activity decline. Metabolism drops to 1/2 to 2/3 the rate of young adults. Enzymes lose ability to process some drugs, thus prolonging drug half-life. Absorption Gastric emptying rate and gastrointestinal […]

Nursing management

Nursing management Nurses play a critical role Conducting a comprehensive history and physical assessment Participating in plan of care Teaching patient and caregiver Symptom management Evaluating patient and family outcomes Nursing assessment First attend to primary needs Ensure assistive devices are used Allow plenty of time Interview family or caregivers separately Involves an inter-professional approach […]

Chronic illness and Older Adults

Chronic illness and Older Adults Older Adults Aging population Surviving acute illness Living with chronic illness Becoming more educated and resourceful More ethnically diverse Demographics of Aging Those reaching age 65 can expect additional years of life 17.8 for men 20.4 for women Young-old adults are 65-74 years Old-old adults are 85 and older Frail […]

Process of patient teaching

Process of patient teaching Assessment of learning needs involves 4 main areas: Physical factors What is the patient’s age? Is the patient acutely ill? Is the patient fatigued or in pain? What is the primary diagnosis? Are there additional medical problems? What is the patient’s current mental status? What is the patient’s hearing ability? Visual […]

Teaching-Learning Process

Teaching-Learning Process Nurse as Teacher Required competencies Knowledge of subject matter Communication skills Teaching and caregivers has many challenges, including; Lack of time – Can be a barrier to effective teaching. Tell the patient at the beginning of the interaction how much time you can devote to the session. Some teaching should be delivered or […]

Patient and Caregiver Teaching

Patient and Caregiver Teaching Role of Patient and Caregiver teaching General goals for patient teaching include Health promotion Disease prevention Illness management Selection and use of appropriate treatment options A teaching plan includes Assessment of the patient’s ability and readiness to learn Identification of teaching needs Development of learning goals with the patient Implementation of […]

Outline for physical examination

Outline for physical examination General survey Observe general state of health Vital signs Record vital signs such as: Blood pressure Pulse rate (apical/radial pulse) Respiration rate Temperature Oxygen saturation Integumentary/skin Inspect and palpate skin and nail Head and neck Inspect and palpate face, sinuses, and central nervous system Extremities Observe size and shape, symmetry and […]

Types of Assessment

Types of Assessment Emergency assessment Limited to assessing life-threatening conditions (e.g., inhalation, injuries, anaphylaxis, myocardial infarction, shock, stroke) This involves a rapid history and examination of a patient while maintaining vital functions. Conducted to ensure survival. Focuses on elements in primary survey (e.g., airway, breathing, circulation, disability) Comprehensive assessment Typically done on admission to the […]

Objective Data Nursing History

Objective Data General Survey Physical Examination Techniques Inspection Visual examination of a part or region of the body to assess normal conditions or deviations and by comparing Palpation Using light and deep palpation can yield information related to masses, pulsations, organ enlargement, tenderness or pain, swelling, muscular spasm or rigidity, elasticity, vibration of voice sounds, […]

Nursing History

Nursing History Subject Data Important Health Information Past health history Major childhood and adult illnesses, injuries, hospitalizations, and surgeries Medications Past and current medications, including prescription and illicit drugs, over-the-counter drugs, vitamins, herbs, and dietary supplements. Question older adult and chronically ill patients about medication routines. Allergies Fully explore the patient’s history of allergies to […]